John Savory the Elder had died by April 1791.  There remained, however, a John Savory at "The Wheel" until at least 1801 and this is likely his son, John Savory junior. There was a John Savory in Calne who was a master barber during this period.

   The lease became available of the Catherine Wheel in Calne from Michaelmas 1814, it is very likely that John Wilson took it on. (Salisbury and Winchester Journal - Monday 19 September 1814 p3.) From the Salisbury and Winchester Journal - Monday 27 June 1825 it was announced that Harriet, wife of Mr. John Wilson jun. died on Sunday 12th June, aged 32, followed on Monday 20th June by Elizabeth, the wife of John Wilson sen. of Hambly House, Streatham, in her 57th year. In 1825, John Wilson & Co. were running a regular daily return, four inside coach, to the White Lion Hotel, Bath, via the Angel, Chippenham and the Methuen Arms in Corsham, called the "Self Defense", leaving at 7.30am each morning, and arriving at the White Lion at 10am, leaving at 5.30pm. John Wilson died on Tuesday 22nd November 1825, aged just 32. He is referred to as John Wilson of the Lansdowne Arms Inn, Calne at the time of his death. It is likely that the name change occurred during his tenure, although there are still references to "The Wheel" at Calne as late as 1830. There was a John Wilson born to a John and Elizabeth Wilson in St. Leonard, Streatham, Surrey on April 28th bapt. May 25th, 1795, his father was a schoolmaster.

    Charles Pinniger/Pinnegar was born in Calne in 1796 and baptised 26th Dec., likely son of William Pinnegar/Pinniger and Mary Morse who married in Dauntsey, Wilts. on 9th Nov. 1786. Charles married Mary Neate in Cherhill, by license on 23rd May 1822, at which time he is a clothier. Charles is certainly innkeeper at the Lansdowne by 1827. Mary died on Mon. 5th June 1843. Together they had 5 children: Mary Anna (b. 1824 bapt. 31st Oct. at Cherhill); William (b. 1826 bapt. 24th Aug. at Calne); Henry (b. 1827 bapt. 12th Oct. at Calne); Charles (b. 1830 bapt. 16th Aug. at Calne); Ellen (b.1832 bapt. 19th Sept. at Calne).

    Charles senior died on 12th March 1855 in Salisbury, aged 59, leaving William, Charles and Ellen Pinniger to run the Inn. William married Mary Ann Jeffreys, eldest daughter of Mr. Stiles Jeffreys, at Trinity Church, Calne on 12th August 1864. In 1871 he is listed as a Brewer and Wine Merchant, living in Patford Street, Calne, with their then 5 year old son Frederick William. Charles and Ellen are listed as Innkeepers at the Lansdowne this year.

     Charles junior died on 14th Feb. 1874 and William died on 29th June 1885 leaving only Ellen in charge. On Monday 31st March 1890 at the Calne Petty Sessions, the license was transferred from Miss Pinniger to Charles Edward Fox. Ellen retired to New Road, Calne. She died at 1 Priory Villas on 18th June 1910.

    Charles Edward Fox was born in 1832 in Great Leighs in Essex. He married Theodosia Careless, sister of Richard Careless of the Angel Hotel, Chippenham and only daughter of Edward Careless of Broadway Farm, Evesham, on 3rd Sept. 1861 at All Saints Church, Evesham, Worcs. by the Rev. H. E. Devey. At the time Charles was a Draper and Outfitter, living with his widowed mother Jemima Elizabeth Lambert in Evesham High Street. Jemima had re-married Steel Lambert in Great Dunmow, where Steel was postmaster, on 20th Sept. 1848 at the Independent Meeting House. He was 74, she was 29 according to the newspapers! (Bell's New Weekly Messenger - Sunday 01 October 1848 p.1) He was described as a "Fine old English Gentleman, one of the olden time". Steel was for many years a miller and corn factor in the town, he died suddenly on 24th March 1858 aged 83.

    In 1851 Charles was an assistant draper in the High Street in Brentford, South Weald, but in 1841 he was at school in Great Dunmow. His mother that year was a farmer living at Crockfords, West Hanningfield, Essex, with son William aged 7 and daughter Martha, 6. William Fox was baptised on 11th Oct. 1833 and Martha Bannister Fox was baptised 4th May 1835 in West Hanningfield, daughter of David Fox and Jemima Elizabeth Gladwin who had married at Stepney St. Dunstan on 31st July 1829.

    Charles and Theodosia had 9 children: Polley (b. 1862); Catherine (b. 1863 bapt. 24th July, All Saints, Evesham); William Harrison (b. 1864 bapt. 31st Aug., All Saints, Evesham); Dosie (b.1866 bapt. 20th June, All Saints, Evesham); Ellen Marina (b. 1867 bapt. 20th Dec., St. Lawrence, Evesham); David Bannister (b.1869 bapt. 10th Nov., All Saints, Evesham); Frederick Charles (b. 1870, bapt. 2nd Oct. 1870, Eckington, Worcs.); Harry George (b. 1871 bapt. 20th Oct., All Saints, Evesham); Crutchley Edward (b. 1874 bapt. 27th May, St. Lawrence, Evesham) and Francis Philip (b. 25th June 1875 bapt. 28th Apr. 1876, Salford Priors).

    In March 1894 Charles Edward Fox was a primary mover in setting up a local Licensed Victuallers and Beer Retailers Protection Association, together with Richard Careless and others. Charles was the proposer.

    Samuel Belsey was born in Rotherhithe, Surrey, around 1880, bapt. 25th Feb. at St. Augustine's Bermondsey, son of Robert Belsey and Elizabeth Tolhurst. Robert Belsey, his father, was in turn the son of Robert Belsey, a watchmaker, and Jemima Tearoe (They had married in St. Luke's Lambeth on 7th Oct. 1839, but Robert died in 1843 and Jemima, later in 1861, remarried to Patrick Ford) , and a brother of William Abraham Belsey, (the father of Albert Charles Belsey, see below). In 1901 Samuel was a licensed victualler at the "British Oak" in Old hill Street, Stoke Newington. He married Jane Elizabeth Martin in Camberwell in 1900. In 1911 he was manager of the "Stirling Castle", 50 London Wall. When Samuel Belsey took on the Lansdowne in around 1915, he first appears in the papers advertising for new staff. Unfortunately he later has a run-in with one of his barmaids whom he suspects for stealing from the till. He marks some of the coins and makes a search of her room, finding money in small parcels which he confiscated. She issued a summons against him for theft, but the charge did not stick as her story was inconsistent and she was in possession of the marked coins. He said he was quitting the Inn due to ill health. (Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette - Saturday 15 January 1916 p. 8).

    Albert Charles Belsey, cousin of Samuel, was born in Ely, Cambridgeshire in 1879, son of William Abraham Tearoe Belsey and Elizabeth Maria. He married Eve Grimsteed on 27th July 1901 at St. Luke's, Battersea, London. In 1909 he was a member of a London masonic lodge, which he resigned on 17th July 1916, probably as a result of moving to Calne to run the Lansdowne in place of Samuel. Eva died on the 8th June 1935, at the time, her husband was a theatrical manager. They were living at 91 Balham Park Road, Balham, Surrey. Albert died 28th June 1950 in Wandsworth, London.

    The Lansdowne Arms was sold as one of 3 lots, by auction on Friday 27th June 1924, and the tenancy was due to end that September. Arthur Milton Portch was the next landlord, and it seems brewing on the premises ceased at this date. The Inn became part of the Trust Houses Ltd. chain around 1933.

A curious tale unfolded regarding stone jars from the brewery, and a death by arsenic poisoning unfolded in 1933, from the inquest report in the Western Daily Press - Saturday 12 August 1933:

HOW ARSENIC GOT INTO PARSNIP WINE JAR - Misadventure Verdict at Calne Inquest. - FARM WORKER'S DEATH - No Blame Attached to Anyone.

    Verdict of "Death from arsenic poisoning through misadventure" was returned at Calne, Wiltshire, yesterday at the inquest on William Jones (65), farm worker, of Holmarton.
   Jones shortly before his death had drunk some parsnip wine from a four gallon earthenware jar. He was taken suddenly ill, soon afterwards, and died before the arrival of medical assistance.

    The coroner, Mr. A. L. Forrester, in recording the jury's verdict, added that in his opinion no blame was attached to anyone in connection with the death, and a portion of the earthenware jar was retained for further analytical examination.
    The coroner in summing up said he was afraid that the question as to how the arsenic got into the jar was impossible to answer.

    Mrs. Dorothy Margaret Helen Godwin, of Compton Bassett, daughter of the dead man, said that on July 27 her father came to her house for a few minutes during the dinner hour. She had some wine in an old whisky bottle in the kitchen.
    "He said, 'What have you got there?' I told him that it was wine, and he said 'Give me some.'
    "I gave him the bottle. He sipped it from the bottle and said 'that's jolly good; give me a glass.'
    "I poured out three parts of a glassful and he drank it."
    Mrs Godwin said she had had the wine in a stone jar since May, and had drawn it in the whisky bottle from the jar that morning.
    The jar had only been opened once before - six weeks previously - when she gave a small medicine bottle to her mother-in-law.
    Mrs. Godwin added that her mother had made the wine.
    Mrs Godwin added that she brought the jar from a neighbour. She did not put anything into it before the wine was put in.
    Mr. George Bradfield, of Compton Bassett, a farm carter, who sold the jar to Mrs. Godwin, said he bought a similar one two days before and filled it with wine.
    "That wine has all gone, and I filled it again," he added.
    "It is thirsty weather," remarked the Coroner.
    Charles Mollart, of Calne, the general dealer who sold the jar to Mr. Bradfield, said that he had had it in his yard about a fortnight or three weeks. About three or four days after he had it rinsed out with water. He had put nothing into it.
    Mr Forrester: You don't keep any poisonous stuff, weed-killer and that sort of thing? No.
    Mr. Mollart added that he bought the jar from Mr H. M. Portch, formerly of the Lansdowne Arms Hotel, Calne.
    William Knight, of Thee Green, Calne, formerly employed by Mr. Portch, said the jars were kept in an old shed. Two years ago he found half a tin of weed-killer in the shed.
    "I used the lot," he said. "I mixed it in a water-can."
    Mr Forrester. - You did not mix it in that jar? - No.
    Knight said he thought the stone jar had been in the shed about seven years.
    Mrs Jones, the widow, was then called.
    During her evidence she broke down repeatedly as she described how she made the parsnip wine in a boiler at her son's home.
    Two days after it had cooled it was placed in jars. She said she had made parsnip wine for 30 years, and although she did not touch it, her family liked it.
    She said she washed out thee jar repeatedly with cold and boiling water.
    "We have drunk three bottles of the wine at home without any ill effect," she said, "but it did not come out of this jar."
    In reply to the Coroner witness said the cork was one she had used for years. She used it because the jar did not have one.
    Mr Forrester: You have got no weed-killer, have you? - No.
    Mrs Jones was deeply distressed and had to be assisted from the room at the conclusion of the evidence.
    Mr Edward Godwin, a brother-in-law of Mrs Godwin, said he tasted a little of the wine from the jar at the beginning of July.
    "I had about two table-spoonfuls," he said, "and I was violently sick."
    Dr. J. H. Gubbin, deputy county pathologist, produced a report of the county analyst which stated that seven ounces of the wine contained six and three-quarter grains of arsenic. The body contained a substantial quantity of arsenic.
    Dr. Gubbin said he formed the opinion that the cause of death was arsenic poisining.
    Mr Forrester - Supposing weed-killer had been kept in the jar some time previously, would the stone absorb it?
    Dr. Gubbin - It depends whether the inside of the jar were glazed or not. If the inside were chipped off, then the arsenic would soak into the stone and be drawn out by the wine.
    Mr Forrester, summing up, said: "From the evidence, there can be no doubt that the cause of death was arsenic poisoning.
    "It is a case of misadventure, because the person who gave him the wine would not for a moment suppose that there was anything the matter with it.
    "The thing we are not absolutely certain about is how the arsenic got into the wine jar. That, I am afraid, is a question which is impossible to answer.
    "By your verdict you will quite obviously prevent any accusation of poisoning fall upon any of the people who are connected with the wine, and particularly the person who was unfortunate enough to give the fatal draught."

    At the end of the inquest, the suspect jar was smashed for an examination to be made of the interior. A piece of the jar was taken away for further analytical examination. Another report described the jar as an "old-fashioned, four-gallon stone jar of a type commonly used for such purposes by Wiltshire villagers." If for nothing else, this article serves to illustrate how travelled these containers are, and the fact they survive intact at all is somewhat of a miracle, but also there is a warning, that using them for wine and such products today may have its hazards!



2 & 4 Gallon Stone Jars Pinniger2.jpgPinniger3.jpgPinniger4.jpg
Impressed: W & C PINNIGER / Wine Merchants / CALNE

Potters: Powell / Bristol
Price / Bristol.
Images centre & right courtesy Tony Hughes.

2 Pint Spirit Flask CEFox3.jpg
Embossing: C. E. FOX / CALNE.

Glassmakers: Powell & Ricketts, Bristol. Height: 9.5" (24.1cm).

1/2 Pint Beer CEFox2.jpg
Embossing: C. E. FOX / & Co./ LANSDOWNE / BREWERY / CALNE.

Glassmakers: Powell & Ricketts, Bristol.
Dark green glass, corked stopper: height: 7.6" (19.3cm).

1 Gallon Stone Jar CEFox1.jpg
Printed: (Top): 413 / C. E. FOX / BREWER / WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANT / CALNE.

Potter: Powell, Bristol

1 Gallon Stone Jar CEFox4.jpgCEFox5.jpg

Potter: Price, Bristol

1 Gallon Stone Jar CEFox6.jpg

Potter: Price, Bristol
Image courtesy private collector.

1 Gallon Stone Tap Jar Belsey1.jpgBelsey2.jpg

Image right courtesy Tony Hughes.

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